“Day and night, light and darkness — this polarity is of fundamental significance in human life and nature generally.” (Johannes Itten, The Art of Color)
Tones or values (black, white and grays) are presented either as stripes in a one-dimensional array (vector) or as squares in a two-dimensional array (matrix). Despite the limited vocabulary, these studies demonstrate not just the compositional possibilities of tonality (contrast of quantity, figure and ground, rhythm, symmetry, balance, etc.) but also its expressive capacities (discord, harmony, sobriety, gaiety, etc.).